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Irish Class, August 10, 2009

Rang Gaeilge, 10ú lá Mí na Lúnasa

In the next few weeks we are each to write a short fable as Gaeilge.

Liosta rudaí don Fhabhalscéal — List of things for a fable

balla cloichelittle walls of stone
dairoakcrann darach "tree of oak"
Not really correct—suggests "tree made of oak"
an ghrianthe sun
ubheggf2 pl uibheacha
clochánstepping stone

Pearsana "characters"
buachaill beag bánfair little boy
girseach gheal ghlicbright clever girlthe repitition is idiomatic
éan eaglachtimid bird, scary bird
cú cancrachcranky hound
cailleach chnámhach chaolbony skinny hag
gabha óir/airgid/dubhgold(silver, black)smith
rí ramharfat king
cat crainn clochramarten
nathair nimhepoisonous snake
cailín bainnemilkmaid
madra ruafox"red dog"
prionsa paiseantaprince charminglit. "passionate prince"
damhán alla dubhblack spider
fear farraige fialgenerous sailor
bó bhuí bhalbhtongue-tied yellow cow

Áiteanna "places"
i lár na cathrachin the center of the city
ar thaobh an bhóthairon the side of the road[fable idea!]
thar an mballaover the wall
in aice leis an mbóthannext to the cottage
feadh ghrinneall na farraigealong the bottom of the sea
ar an bhfeilmon the farmCois. C.O.: ar an feirm
suas on cnocup the hillmotion
thíos sa ngleanndown in the valleystatic
faoin droicheadunder the bridge
ar an lochon the lake
feadh an tráalong the beach

Briathra "verbs"
bogsoften, move
réitighprepare, be ready
athraighchange, convert
bruithboil, bake
scaoilloosen, release

fabhalscéalfable /faus'cəl/
fad ó fad ólong ago
balbhmute, inarticulate, tongue-tied/balə/
eaglachfearful, afraid, scared

Reamhfhocail arís — Prepositions again

This is the same table we have been working on through the summer. I have been repeating it to keep a cumulative copy of all the additional notes that came up in each class. This time we worked on do, de, & i.

Réamhfhocail — Prepositions
singular indefinitesingular definiteplural indefinite plural definite
agatag páiste ag an bpáiste ag páistí ag na páistí
asout of, from as bosca as an mbosca as boscaí as na boscaí
letwith le bosca
le hÚna
leis an mosca le boscaí leis na boscaí
óout of, from ó bhaile ón mbaile ó bhailte ó na bhailte
arvon, to ar chlár ar an gclár ar chláir ar na cláir
roimhvbefore roimh bhalla roimh an mballa roimh bhallí roimh na ballí
thrícvthrough thrí bhosca thríd an mbosca thrí bhoscaí thrí na boscaí
faoiunder, about faoi bhord faoin mbord faoi bhoird faoi na boird
tharpast thar fhear thar an bhfear thar fhir thar na fir
de /gə/ except after
dentals. Then /də/
of, fromde bhróg
den bhróg
den t-úll

de bhróga
de na bróga
de na h-úa
do /gə/ except after
dentals. Then /də/
for do pheann
don pheann
don t-am

do phinn
do na pinn
do nah-amanna
inin i bpota "in a pot"
in abhainn "in a river"
sa bpota "in the pot"
san abhainn "in the river"
i gcathracha sna cathracha
ganvwithout gan bhean
gan bean eile
gan an bean gan bhróga
gan bróga nua
gan na bróga
go dtí
toward, until go Sasana
go hEireann
go dtí an teach go dtí na tithe
seachasexcept seachas fear seachas an fear seachas fir seachas na fir
idirbetween idir bord
idir fuinneog
idir an bord
idir an fhuinneog
idir boird
idir fuinneoga
idir na boird
idir na fuinneoga


  • Eclipsis with singular definite articles does not apply to nouns beginning with t-, d- & s-.
  • Superscripts in the 1st column refer to sounds that used to be part of the language but are now gone. c: consonant, v: vowel. Others (t, n) mean the specific letter given, e.g. le was once let.
  • thríd is aspirated. Almost /s'ri:d'/ .
  • seachas used to be a noun ("exception") and then took the genitive.
  • gangana. gan: If the noun has an adjective, there is no lenition.
  • go is cognate to comh- "mutual, joint, common, co-" and Latin cum.
    go dtícom (result of the nasal).

  • When the following noun begins with a vowel, i → in, sa → san. sna prefixes h- (with the hyphen) to the noun.

  • do & de
    • Both end in vowel, hence the following consonant is lenited.
    • Both pronounced /gə/ in front of consonants. Note vowel forms above
    • do do "for your", de do "of your": /gə də/
    • They behave similarly, and are tending to merge in modern spoken Irish.

ar /er'/ ← aire. r is slender because it used to be between two slenderizing vowels. Since it used to end in a vowel, it lenites.

ó has not changed much from pIE.

deoinwill, consent, accordf3 pl deonta
de do dheoinof your own accord/gə də yo:n'/

Note on counting objects: 2-5 end, or used to end in a vowel. Hence they lenite the noun. 6-9 used to end with -n. Hence they eclipse.

Note cathair "city" and cathaoir "chair" are related. They are cognates to "cathedral".

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What is a good CD training course?
I drive 75 min a day each way so want to see if I can either learn gaelic or work on my accent

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