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Monday night Irish Class, April 4, 2011
Irish
gmcdavid

Rang Gaeilge, 4ú lá mí Aibreáin 2011

Taispeáin agus Inis — "Show and Tell"

óinseachfoolish womanf2
"achanna""buts"
saollife
simplísimple
babhtáilexchange, swap, barter, shuffle, dealf3, v
cluichegame
margadhmarket, bargain, agreementm1
margaighmarketv
roinndepartment
tháinig sé chun solaisit came to light
aireministerm4 (of gov't)
sóisearachjuniora1
éigeantachrequired, mandatory

From Obama – beidh mé sa reicneáil in 2012.

Thug Barack Obama le fios inniu ar theachtaireachtaí físeáin agus in ephost chuig a lucht tacaíochta go bhfuil sé ar intinn aige dul chun cinn don dara téarma Uachtaránachta. Go dtí seo níor fhógair ach aon duine amháin, an Poblachtach Tim Pawlentey gur rún dó dul san iomaíocht do thoghchán 2012. Dúirt an tUachtarán Obama gur rún dó luí isteach ar an obair atá idir láimh aige agus nach mbainfidh a dhúshlán don dara téarma den obair atá ar bun aige faoi láthair.

reicsale
reicneáilreckoning
teachtaireachtmessagef3
tacaíochtsupportf3
intinnmind, spirit, intention
físvisionf2 pl físeanna
chunto, towards
cinnfix, determine, descree
fógairdeclare, proclaim
rúnsecret, intention
rún dó luí isteach he intends to lay into
atá idir láimh aigewith what is on his hands
íomaíochtcompetition
toghchánelection
luístate of rest, inclination, tendency
dúshlánchallenge, defiance
bain ... amacharrive, reach
bain ... leconnect
bain ... den obair... take away from the work
faoi láthairat present
atá ar bun aige faoi láthairthat he has at present

malairt & milleán

malairt
malairtchange, alternative, exchange
leisceoirlazy person
saotharwork, laborm1
sosrest, break (from work)
is é a mhalairt fíorthe opposite is true
cúiscause, reason
easpalack
Le heaspa a mhalairtlack of an alternative
trócaireachmerciful, lenient, compassionate
síthpeace
cogadhwar
aignemind, disposition, intentionf4
fonndesire, inclination,1
díolpayment
need, requirement
gamalfoolm1
fearthainnrain, rainfallf2
dealramhappearance, resemblance, sheen, radiancem1
scamallcloudm1
scuabadhsweeping

Mhalairt Odysseus Scylla ar Charybdis.
Odysseus exchanged Charybdis for Scylla.

Is maith a mhalairt earrach ar geimhreadh.
Spring for winter is a good exchange.

milleán
milleánblamem1
cluichegame, joke
báirematch, contest, goal
mí-ádhbad luck
áirithecertain, particular (a); certainty, certain quantity, allotment (n)f4 as n
urcharcast, shotm1
socairquiet, still, calm
ciontachguilty, culprit
dreamgroup of people
maraighkill
leiscelaziness
cigireinspectorm4
moltóirreferee, umpire

Cuireann oibrí dona millen air a chuid uirlisí.
A poor worker blames his tools.

Má chailltear an cluiche is an moltóir a bhíonn a mhilleán.
If a game is lost the umpire will be blamed.

Cuir a mhilleán ar an duine as láthair.
Blame the absent person.


Copula Summary — patterns

From Will's handout with additional notes

  1. No é

    Copula links two indefinites: "An X is a Y."
    Is éan spideog.A robin is a bird.
    Is ainmhí sionnach.A fox is an animal
    Is bláth rós.A rose is a flower
    Is gadaí pioráid.A pirate is a thief

  2. Classification of he/she/it/they

    These are classification (aicme) sentences with a pronoun subject. They end up with just one pronoun, the one that is the subject: "He is an X."
    Is éan í.It is a bird
    Is ainmhí é.It is an animal
    Is saighdiúirí iad.They are soldiers
    Is gadaí é sin.

  3. Classification with Proper Noun Subject

    These are like #2, but the he/she/they subject has been replaced with a definite noun. When that happens, the definite noun is preceded by a pronoun, according to the convention mentioned above, so that a sentence that says, "Charlie Sheen is an actor," ends up seeming to mean something like, "Charlie Sheen is an actor him" or "He Charlie Sheen is an actor."

    That extra pronoun is just part of the definite noun when it follows the copula, and it doesn't have to be translated.

    Is éan í an spideog.The robin is a bird.
    Is ainmhí é an sionnach.The fox is an animal.
    Is aisteoir é Charlie Sheen.Charlie Sheen is an actor.
    Is feilmeoirí iad na fir sin.Those men are farmers.
    Is gadaí é mac an mhúinteora.The son of the teacher is a thief.The noun phrase, "son of the teacher," identifies a very specific person, so it is a definite (even a proper) noun.

  4. Identification with Two Definite Nouns

    When we have two definite nouns, the one immediately following the copula will get that extra pronoun. This produces sentences much like our previous category, where we seem to have three things, but only translate two:
    Is é Charlie Sheen an t-aisteoir is fearr.Charlie Sheen is the best actor.
    Is í Madonna an bhean is ciúine.Madonna is the quietest woman.ciúin: calm, still
    Is é an sagart an fear is craiceáilte.The priest is the craziest man

  5. Identification with Definite Noun = Pronoun

    This pattern causes problems.

    In this case, the subject of the sentence, as it is translated, is a pronoun, he/she/it/they. The definite noun in the copula sentence is what we are saying about the subject. But in the Irish version, the definite noun phrase comes first, and it feels like there are too many pronouns.

    Resist that feeling: The first pronoun is in a unit with the definite noun. The second one corresponds to the English pronoun.

    The first pronoun is just the one connected to the definite noun, and the second one is the "he/she/they" of the sentence. You need both pronouns because the first one is part of that noun phrase, and will not be translated.
    Is é an t-aisteoir é.He is the actor
    Is í an t-amhránaí í.She is the singer
    Is iad na saighdiúrí iad.They are the soldiers.

  6. Fronting the Adjective for Emphasis

    We already know how to say, "He's a good boy": Is buachaill maith é. The final é is needed as subject, and you're already comfortable with that.

    But to express "He's a good boy!", we say Is maith an buachaill é. We pull the adjective up front, and add the definite article. This is what leads to that Hiberno-English style of expression, something like, "It's the good boy he is." If we are talking about a specific person, we'll need that pronoun as part of the usual noun phrase.

    Is breá an lá é.It is a fine day.
    Is dorcha an oíche í.It is a dark night.
    Is deas an bhean í Lady GaGa.Lady Gaga is a nice woman.
    Is mór an trua é!It is a great pity.

    a few adjectives are often used alone with the copula:

    deasnice
    maithgoodAlso maith le
    fíortrue
    Is fíor é.It is true.
    Is fíor é sin.That is true.
    Is fíor sin.That is true.
    álainnbeautiful, delightful
    aoibhinndelightful, blissful
    fuathhatefulAlso fuath le
    olcbad, evil